Archive of Month November 2008 :


Every (partial) space is associated with a corresponding thing. However, there is probably an inifnite number of ways to define a thing’s space. Extremely different pictures may be used, no single one can display every aspect of this relation — because in the end every possible explanation has to stay in its own space, which is necessarily partial.

It is actually this plentitude of different views, together with their apparent inconsistency, that are able to give a vivid impression of what matters. It is a kind of movement, a certain activity, that transforms the thing into its space (and vice versa). While occuring in various environments, it takes various respective forms.

The Space Of A Thing

Things appear in their spaces. A thing is made of its appearances, it exists in them.

A thing’s appearances may be different instances of one and the same thing; or they are supposed to be different states of one single thing; sometimes different parts of a thing may be regarded as its appearances; or just different views, showing the thing’s different sides, for example.

All these are possible appearances of a thing. They all constitute – on their own specific way – somthing we can call the space of the thing.


X-Logic is about very simple basic principles of thinking and knowing. We consider them elementary. They are to be found everywhere, in every area of life and matter and so.

This may be explained by the fact that all we can know about the world is exactly this: known. Even experience, however direct, is somehow interiorized and so might have passed some sort of filter.

On the other hand, however, it might also be possible that the principles of X-Logic can be found in the mental for the reason that it inherited them, so to speak, from its material roots. These may be searched in structures and functions of the brain, or even deeper, maybe on a so-called “quantum scale”.

Yet generally applicable logical principles do not really have to be based on whatever reasons. Instead, these principles can serve as a basis, for describing and explaining material as well as mental phenomena, for instance.

Where To Start?

There is always something there, we cannot start with nothing. We always move in a — non-empty — space of knowledge. There is always something that we know, that we are certain about, that we rely on.

That is what we call “knowledge”.